Eye Care: Parts and Functions of the Eyes

1. Retinal blood vessel,
2. Choroid: Blood vessels within this layer supply the eye with essential nutrients,
3. Retina: This innermost layer of the eyeball contains nerve fibers and light-sensitive cells,
4. Optic disk : This area, where the optic nerve leaves the eye, lacks light-sensitive cells and is also known as the ‘blind spot’,
5. Optic nerve: Nerve impulses travel along the optic nerve from the retina to the brain,
6. Eye muscle: Six muscles surround the eye, allowing it to rotate in any direction,
7. Fovea: The fovea, at the centre of the macula, is packed with light- sensitive cells and is the most sensitive part of the retina,
8. Vitreous humour: The back part of the eye is filled with a jelly-like substance called vitreous humour,
9. Lens : The elastic lens can change shape to focus light rays from both near and distant object, 10. Sclera : The tough sclera is the white of the eye, forming the outer coat of the eyeball,
11. Conjuctiva: This thin, transparent membrane covers the white of the eye andforms the lining of the eyelids,
12. Aqueous humour: This watery fluid, produced by the ciliary body, fills front chamber of the eye, which is between the lens and the cornea,
13. Cornea: This transparent cornea at the front of the eye plays an important role in focusing light rays,
14. Pupil: Light enters the back part of the eye through the pupil, the opening in the centre of the coloured iris,
15. Iris: The coloured iris of the eye contains muscles that control the size of the pupil,
16. Suspensory ligament: The fibers of the suspensory ligament attach the lens to the ciliary body,
17. Ciliary body: The ciliary body controls lens thickness to focus light correctly; it also secretes aqueous humour,
18. Skull bone: The bony orbit of the skull protects the eyeball.

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Eye Care: Harmful Factors Affecting the Eyes

Main causes, that impair eye-sight, can be summed up as follows:


Persons working in factories, blast furnaces, chemical units, mines, pesticides and insecticides, drug manufacturing units, glass factories, steel plants, using electrodes with bare eyes are some of the places where eye sight is liable to be impaired due to lack of proper protection and preventive measures. There is a high rate of eye diseases caused to such workers who work in the above mentioned industrial units.

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Eye Care: Types and Expressions of Eyes

Eyes are the mirror of our health, mood and temperament. They help us to perceive various objects, protect us from dangers by giving forewarning about impending dangers. But for the eyes, all our activities of life would have come to a grinding halt and all the charm, beauty, perception, vision, pleasure, etc. would have been lost to us. We can behold beauty through our eyes. It has been well said that beauty lies in the beholder’s eyes but, then, one must have eyes to behold.

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Eye Care: Loss of Vision and Its Fitness

Less than 10 percent of the population is born with blurred vision, upset binocularity (two-eyedness), or diseased eyes. But by young adulthood, a disturbing 60 percent of the remaining 90 percent have nearsightedness, farsightedness, astigmatism, crossed or wall eyes, or ocular disease conditions. This provocative statistic clearly demonstrates that we as a culture are slowly losing our natural vision-fitness.

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Eye Care: How Fit is Your Vision? Eye Fitness Questionnaire

From case histories and clinical research we find that certain behaviours are related to vision-fitness. The following questionnaire wil help you identify particular behaviours that apply to your vision-fitness. Indicate on a scale from zero to ten how difficult these activities are for you.

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Eye Care: Importance of Natural Light and Color

Most books on the anatomy of the eye mention that 25 percent of the visual fibres which leave the retina bypass the pathways to the visual area of the brain. It has been proposed that these fibres, carrying the electrical equivalent of white sunlight, go to a part of the brain known as the hypothalamus. This ‘master regulator’ makes adjustments to the nervous system of the body, balancing the functions of organs such as the pituitary and adrenal glands.

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Eye Care: Vision Fitness Exercises for Specific Eye Parts

Eye Anatomy – Vision-Fitness Exercise

Cornea – Blinking every three seconds
Iris muscles/Pupil – Using full-spectrum lighting; exposing
Lens/Ciliary muscle – closed eyes to sunlight and blinking
Retina/Fovea Eye – Breathing; zooming (near/far focusing)
muscles Overall – Non-staring; moving the eyes frequently
eye/mind relaxation – Eye-muscle stretching
Overall eye fitness – Palming the eyes, Visualizing the parts of the eye while exercising

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