Epilepsy refers to a chronc condition in which repeated fits or attacks of unconsciousness occur with or without convulsions. It is a serious disorder of the central nervous system caused by abnormal electrical activity of the brain. It occurs in both children and adults. Most attacks, however, occur in childhood and in early adult life. Attack rates show a progressive decline in frequency with age.
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A febrile convulsion refers to a convulsion or fit which occurs with a rapid rise in body temperture. It disrupts family life and gives most unpleasant experience to both the child and his parents. Children in the age group of six months to five years are especially prone to this condition. This is because the child’s brain is not fully developed and also there is genetic predisposition for febrile convulsions.
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Headaches afflict almost at some time or the other. Most headaches are functional, caused by temporary upsets and are not related to any organic changes in the brain. A headache is often nature’s warning that something is wrong somewhere in the body. The actual pain, however, arises from irritation to nerve endings in the shoulder, neck and scalp muscles and also in the smooth muscles encircling the blood vessels which serve these areas.
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Diabetes mellitus is a disease of carbohydrate metabolism caused by lack of insulin, characterised by an abnormaly elevated level of blood glucose and the excertion of the excess glucose in the urine. It results from an absolute or relative lack of insulin which leads to abnormalities in carbohydrate metabolism as well as in the metabolism of protein and fat.
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Jaundice is the most common of all liver disorders. It refers to the accumulation and retention of bilirubin in the skin and other tissues and it results from an obstruction in the bile duct, or the loss of function of the bile -producing liver cells. The disease frequently affects children, even during their tender age.
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Cirrohosis of the liver refers to all forms of liver disease characterised by a significant loss of cells. It is one of the most serious hepatic diseases. The liver gradually contracts in size and becomes hard and lethargy.
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Conjunctivitis refers to an inflammation of the conjunctiva, the thin transparent membrane covering the eye ball. It is also known as sore eyes. It spreads from person to person through direct contact. Overcrowding, dirty surroundings and unhealthy living conditions can cause epidemic of this ailment.
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Defective vision is a common problem in children nowadays. The main reasons for eye defects are reading in bad light ( either too dim or excessively bright), excessive reading, reading in moving trains, buses or cars, watching too much television, seeing too many films and eating artificial foods.
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The term stye refers to a small painful boil, an inflammed hair follicle or an infection of a seabeceous gland in the edge of the eyelid. The infecting organism is usually a staphylococcus. This disease occurs due to debilitated condition of the system. Some children seem more prone to these infections than others.
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The word ricket is derived from the Anglo-Saxon ‘wrikken’ which means ‘to twist’. It is a deficiency disease of infancy and early childhood in which the bones are softened and deformed. The disease most likely makes its first appearance at the time of teething. It is known as disesase of poverty and darkness and is more prevalent in children of poor class.
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