Achilles tendon is the tendon of the calf muscles attached to the heel of the foot. Its inflammation is diagnosed by the following features.
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Slings are used :
1. To afford support or rest to an upper limb.
2. To prevent the weight of an upper limb pulling on or moving the chest, shoulder or neck.
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The first rule in any treatment modality for wounds is cleanliness. Prevention of infection is the only assurance that a wound will heal well.
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A disinfectant or a germicide is an agent used for killing micro¬organisms and their spores which cause diseases. Various disinfectants are shown in the following table.
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□ TEPID SPONGING
Sponging is the process in which the patient’s body is cleaned with soap and wet cloth while the patient remains in bed. Ordinary sponging is never required by the first aider, but tepid sponging may be required. It is done so as to reduce the body temperature in cases of high fever. The method is as follows.
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The first aider needs to know a few basic principles of nursing so as to be able to render first aid effectively.
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Headache is pain anywhere in the head. It may be constant, throbbing, or intermittent. It is a symptom of a disease and not a disease by itself. Various causes of headache are as follows.
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It is a common virus infection characterized by running nose, cough, sore throat and sometimes fever or pain in the joints. There are constitutional symptoms like malaise and body ache. It reduces body resistance to other infections, so that serious disorders like ear infections, sinusitis, and pneumonia may develop.
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It is deficiency of oxygen and increase in carbon dioxide in the blood and tissues. It occurs due to a failure of exchange of oxygen and carbon dioxide between the air and pulmonary capillaries.
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It is usually due to dental neglect resulting in dental caries. When the tooth decay reaches the canal in the root of the tooth, nerve endings get irritated and cause pain. An abscess may form around the apex of the root and cause further pain. The tooth may also hurt when its outer coating is worn off and hypersensitive inner part is exposed. In such cases contact with cold or very sweet substances produces pain.
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