First-Aid: First-Aid for Influenza and Fever


It is a common virus infection characterized by running nose, cough, sore throat and sometimes fever or pain in the joints. There are constitutional symptoms like malaise and body ache. It reduces body resistance to other infections, so that serious disorders like ear infections, sinusitis, and pneumonia may develop.

First aid

1. Give enough rest.
2. Advise steam inhalation.
3. Avoid sour and cold foods and beverages.
4. Give plenty of water orally.
5. It usually gets cured without medicine. Paracetamol may be used if the fever is high.


1. Avoid contact with a patient of influenza because it spreads by droplet infection.
2. Adequate sleep and nutritious diet containing tomatoes, oranges, other fruits, and vitamin C build up body resistance and prevent colds.
3. Avoid breeze over wet body and hair. Do not wear wet clothes.
4. After washing the hair, dry it well thoroughly.

Fever is elevation of the body temperature above 37°C. The temperature measured in the mouth and rectum is generally at least half a degree higher than that of the axilla.

Types of Fever

Continuous Fever. The temperature does not fluctuate by more than 1°C in 24 hours, and always above 37°C.
Remittent Fever. The temperature fluctuates by more than 2°C in 24 hours.
Intermittent Fever. Fever does not last for all of the 24 hours of the day.

Fever is not a disease itself, but just a symptom of a large number of illnesses. The commonest cause is infection. Acute pyogenic infections cause high fever with chills. Chronic infections like tuberculosis cause low grade fever, often without chills. The condition is diagnosed by the following features.

1. There may be prodromal symptoms like malaise and bodyache.
2. The patient feels chills and rigors.
3. The body becomes warm.
4. The face is flushed.
5. The pulse becomes rapid.
6. The patient may get delirious when the fever is very high.
7. Children below the age of 3 years may get convulsions when the fever is very high.
8. Appetite is lost.
9. The tongue becomes coated and furry.
10. Sweating is absent. Urine output increases.

First aid

1. Give complete bed rest.
2. Give plenty of oral fluids. Add a little sugar or jaggery to it to supply calories.
3. Do tepid sponging in high fever. Cold compresses or ice bag may be applied to the forehead and abdomen.
4. Give aspirin or paracetamol to lower the fever.
5. Shift him to a hospital immediately if he does not respond to these measures or if complications develop like convulsions in a child or delirium.

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