It is usually due to dental neglect resulting in dental caries. When the tooth decay reaches the canal in the root of the tooth, nerve endings get irritated and cause pain. An abscess may form around the apex of the root and cause further pain. The tooth may also hurt when its outer coating is worn off and hypersensitive inner part is exposed. In such cases contact with cold or very sweet substances produces pain.
1. Give aspirin or paracetamol orally.
2. Insert a little cotton ball soaked with clove oil into the cavity of the tooth.
3. Send him to a dentist. Prevention
1. Eat less food stuffs that are very sweet and sticky.
2. Brush teeth properly after every feed.
3. Have periodic dental check up.
PAIN IN ABDOMEN
Abdominal pain is a symptom and not a disease by itself. It can be caused by a large number of causes like peptic ulcer, gastritis, gastroenteritis, appendicitis, indigestion, flatulence, intestinal obstruction, intestinal perforation and peritonitis.
1. Place the patient in half sitting position with the head and shoulders well-supported and the lower limbs drawn up a little.
2. Apply hot water bottle or bag to the abdomen in the painful area.
3. Withhold all food.
4. Do not give a laxative.
5. Shift him to a hospital immediately.
Vomiting is a symptom and not a disease by itself. It can be caused by a large number of causes like gastritis, indigestion, gastric ulcer, gastroenteritis, cancer of the stomach upset, peritonitis, and intestinal obstruction. It may be mild stomach upset and get cured by itself. However the serious disorders listed above require medical treatment.
1. If it is a mild stomach upset, give the patient an antacid and an antiemetic tablet.
2. Shift him to a hospital immediately if he has severe disease, if the vomiting is persistent and progressively increasing in severity, if he vomits out blood, or if the vomit smells like feces.
It is passage of watery loose motions and can be mild or severe. It can be acute on onset and short duration, or chronic, lasting for many days. It is more common and more dangerous in young children, especially those who are malnourished. Infection due to consumption of contaminated food is the commonest cause. Indigestion, malabsorption, liver disorders, and misuse of drugs like ampicillin are other causes.
1. Give oral rehydration therapy, which consists of water mixed with salts (1 liter of boiled water plus 2 tablespoons of sugar or honey and 1/4 teaspoon salt and 1/4 teaspoon of sodium bicarbonate). It reestablishes the hydration and electrolyte content of the body.
2. Shift him to a hospital immediately if the diarrhoea is severe or there are signs of acute dehydration.
3. Breast feeding should be continued in children.
1. Wash hands well before eating.
2. Use sanitary latrines especially in slums and rural areas.
3. Wash hands well with soap and water after defecation.
4. Do not eat exposed food or food purchased from unhygienic food handlers.
5. Control fly infestation.