Modern Medicine: Human Body and Its Functions – Excretory System, Digestive System and Urinary System


Foreign matter and poisonous substances use excreted out of the body by –

(i) Skin (by way of sweat)
(ii) by urine
(iii) by faeces

If sweat glands are inactive and skin pores are close, skin fails to excrete poisonous matters through its pores. Similarly, if stools are not expelled by weak or lost peristaltic action of intestines and rectum, disorders like constipation, pain in abdomen, distress, flatulence, acidity, belching, gripes, loose motions, heartburn, eructations surface. Hence, proper digestion of food is a paramount requisite for efficient functioning of our digestive system.

Food is the basic necessity of all living beings. In order to keep perfectly fit, digestive system must be maintained in perfect functional state; as excretion and expulsion of faeces and urine solely depend upon our digestion. Though human body stores sufficient water but in diseases like cholera, loose motions, vomiting, excessive urine, the stored quantity of water gets depleted. Not only water, but salt and sugar also deplete. This condition causes grave situations which, at times, may prove fatal even.

The problem gets further worsened and complicated when the patient is a child, pregnant and/or lactating ladies or an old person. I will write about digestive system in more details in forthcoming pages as urinary and digestive systems, though quite apart, are interdependent of each other, and malfunctioning of one system invariably reflects upon and affects functions of the other.


Following body organs are involved in digestive system.

1. Mouth, teeth, throat, food pipe (oesophagus)
2. Stomach
3. Large and small intestines
4. Liver
5. Gall bladder
6. Spleen
7. Pancreas
8. Sigmoid, rectum, anus (though these organs help the faecal matter to expel)
9. Caecum, Appendix and Ileum.


Reproductive and urinary organs are correlated to and interdependent on each other, which need to be discussed in reasonable details.

Urinary System : Urine is a waste product (in liquid form) of the body. Urine is picked from blood, by two beanshaped organs, called kidneys, situated on either side of loins not expel any product except the ‘ Waste material’. From kidneys ureters (Pipes) descend into a muscular reservoir, called Bladder, which collects and voids, retains urine passed into it, drop by drop, by each ureter. If a kidney is cut into, we can see that its outer part is grandular, mid-inner part is like a pyramid and full of Urineferous’ Tubules’ which only can pick up urine from blood. Kidneys are full of blood Vessels. Kidneys also retain essential & vital constituents of blood, so essential to maintain harmoneous balance & functioning of body.

Male Genital System: Its external organ is Penis which is made up of body root (buried in perineum) and gland (the conical end). Its body is made of two cylindrical corpora cavernosa figures which get filled-up with blood when the penis passes out along the urethral canal. These three parts are caged in a loose fibrous sheeth and entire penis is suspended (by means of a ligament) from the Pubis. ‘Glans Penis’ is its pointed outer part and skin covering is called ‘Prepuce’ and the small hole in between, is known as ‘Meatus’. Skin of the penis is flexible, loose and devoid of hair. ‘Scrotiun’ is a loosely-knit skin-bag, in which two testicles are lodged, hanging with it by spermatic cord attached with each of them.

Rest of the internal Male sex organs are Prostate Glands, Epididymis, Seminal tubes, the spermatic cord of which people know enough hence no description is called for.

Female Genital System : Genital system of Females is different from that of the males in as much as that some parts, though with changed names, have almost identical functions but a lot of other female parts do need, along with other organs, some more exhaustive description.

External Female organs are Vulva, Labia Majora (two liplike folds) and commissures which are junction points of these labias. Labia Minora are folds of mucous membrane situated under Labia Majora. The Clitoris is like a male penis. Urethra is (1 -1/2 inches long) studded in interior vaginal wall which is about 5″ long. Its lower-end is embraced by Spinchter Vagina.

Internal parts of female are uterus (a pear-shaped muscular organ) Fallopian tubes and ovaries. Uterus is flattened from before backwards, and stretched in the pelvis, between bladder and rectum. Its length is about 3 inches and its upper end is called ‘Fundus’, a body and Cervix (Neck). Tip of Cervix is called ‘OS’. Fallopian tubes, one in each side, are 4″ long, they begin from side of fundus of uterus and end-up in a free extremity near the ovary. Ovaries correspond to testes and are situated in back side of ligament.

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