Resuscitation is a vital emergency technique for the restoration of life or consciousness of the person whose respiration and cardiac activity have ceased. Cessation of these functions results in cessation of oxygenation of blood and pumping of the oxygenated blood to tissues. Since oxygen is essential for survival, resuscitation is done to reestablish tissue oxygenation until respiratory and cardiac functions are restored.
□ CAUSES OF A CARDIAC ARREST
1. Electric shock.
2. Heart attack.
5. Allergic reaction.
6. Severe injuries.
□ SIGNS OF A CARDIAC ARREST
The carotid pulse is felt in the hollow between the windpipe and large neck muscles. It is absent in cardiac arrest.
2. Absence of a pulse.
3. Absence of breathing. Put your cheek against the person’s mouth and feel for breaths.
4. Absence of heart beat (Look for chest movement)
5. Dilated and fixed pupils.
6. A bluish colour of skin, lips or nail beds.
□ ABC OF RESUSCITATION
A CLEAR AIRWAY.
B RESTORE BREATHING
C RESTORE CIRCULATION
□ HOW TO CLEAR THE AIRWAY ?
Clear airway by keeping the head tilted back and sweeping a finger around the mouth.
The airway may be blocked in an unconscious patient due to loss of cough and gag reflexes. That allows the tongue to sag back and block the airway. Mucous or foreign bodies like regurgitated solid food particles may also block the airway. That makes breathing difficult and noisy. Airway is cleared as follows.
1. Use the index finger to hook out any material in the mouth and pharynx, such as broken teeth, vomit, broken dentures, foreign body or mucous.
2. Remove constrictions around the neck, if any.
3. Hyperextend the neck by placing one hand under the neck and the other hand on forehead to tilt the head back. Lift the chin forwards. That pulls the tongue forwards and opens the airway at the back of the throat and he may restart breathing soon. Put him in recovery position and stay with him.