A discussion of new notions on the phonological loop, which was first proposed as an articulatory loop and later reformulated, follows (Gathercole and Baddley, 1989). New elaborations are offered by Burgess and Hitch (1999). In their extensive and comprehensive review, two relevant concepts are the two components of the loop— rehearsal and phonological store. Recent brain imaging research, as well as traditional brain lesion data, supports this division.
Phonological Awareness and Rapid Automatic Naming: Two Cores of the Same Fruit
It has been known for some years now that both phonological awareness and rapid automatic naming (RAN) speed are associated with reading. But what do these tongue twisters mean? Both describe the new reader’s ability to use and understand rhymes, and detect and manipulate sounds. My preliterate 4-year-old son surprised us one day when he overheard me helping my 7-year-old sister spell the word cobbler. He jumped in with “It’s cobb then ler”, demonstrating that he had already acquired the basic principle of segmenting words into sounds.
Three important principles regarding parenthood are:
1. Be Mentally Prepared for Parenthood
Parents are a little scared at the prospect of taking sole charge of a helpless baby for the first time. For those who are fortunate enough to have the support of the grandparents of the baby, this is easier. But for those parents who are alone (particularly if they are young and therefore mentally less prepared for this responsibility and/or both are working parents), child-care may be a big mental stress. With the coming of the baby, their life style completely changes.
❖ Parental care: Don’t be obsessed with perfect baby care. The natural love and care that you give to your child is priceless and more important than knowing how to handle babies expertly. Some parents are over-conscientious and feei self-guilt about small things, because they take baby care too seriously and righteously. This impedes the natural parental care.
**A patient came to the doctor’s chamber with bruises on his face. On being asked the reason for those bruises, he replied that his friend had just come back from honeymoon. The doctor couldn’t understand the relation between the two events whence he elaborated “you see; it was me who had suggested marriage to my friend.” **
During the time that both parents are at work, there should be someone (a caretaker) who loves and is sensitive to the needs of the child. This caretaker may be the grandmother, a nanny, a servant etc. For the child it doesn’t matter, as long as he is not being neglected by the caretaker. Alternatively the child can be put in a creche, with the caveat that the creche should be clean, the caretaker should have a genuine fondness and love for the child rather than just going through the motions. There should not be many children in the creche as then individualised attention becomes difficult and hence the child may be neglected. The most important aspect is that the child should not feel neglected.
1. Normalcy of the Unborn Child
The parental anxieties may start from the time of pregnancy. The joy and pride of parenthood is mixed with a fear, “will my child be perfectly normal, i.e. without any birth defects?” The answer is a question, “why not?” The chances of a baby being born abnormal are minimal. It is just like worrying whether the roof will fall on one’s head one day, which is no cause for worry simply because the chances are minimal.
Parents harbour doubts whether they are doing baby care correctly e.g. is the feeding proper, the clothing suitable etc? My advice is that parents should trust their natural instincts. The very fact that you are doing something for the care of your own child (even if awkwardly) is enough for the baby to feel loved and have a sense that she belongs to you and that you belong to her. Nobody else in the world, including the most perfect baby care provider, can give this feeling to your child. You and only you can make your baby feel as a part of you by your loving care, even if this care is less than theoretically perfect.
The role of the father is extremely important in the care of the newborn. There is no reason why the father cannot do all that the mother does for the baby, thus contributing towards the growth and development of the baby. Once they become mentally adapted to the role of child-care, they feel very satisfied that they are contributing their share towards the rearing of the baby and also feel proud in the fact that they are good fathers.
❖ Father’s role: There is no reason why the father can’t do all that the mother does for the baby. Once they become used to this role, they feel proud and satisfied that they are good fathers and are contributing something to the upbringing of their child.