First-Aid: How to Treat Blisters, Bursitis, Pain in the Shin and Tennis Leg


They occur as due to shearing or compression of the skin. Loose sports shoes may cause blisters over the heels. A narrow toe shoe may cause blisters on the fifth toe.

First aid

1. Use petroleum jelly between toes.
2. Use powder or astringent to dry the foot.
3. Send him to a hospital for drainage of acute blisters.


There are 14 bursae around the knee joint. Any of them can get inflamed. Prepatellar bursa is usually injured by falling onto the anterior aspect of knee or by prolonged kneeling. It is painful when compressed. Septic bursitis may result if it gets infected. In semimembranosus bursitis, there is pain on the lower posteromedial aspect of the knee.

First aid

1. Give paracetamol for pain.
2. Send him to a hospital for orthopedic treatment.


There is pain in he anterior lower leg in anterior compartment syndrome. It increases on dorsiflexion of the foot. It is due to a sudden increase in training intensity, especially jumping or running on a hard surface.

First aid

1. Give rest.
2. Give paracetamol for pain.
3. Send him to a hospital for orthopedic treatment if these measures fail.


Tennis leg is a strain of the gastrocnemius muscle. Women over the age of 30 are generally affected. The condition is diagnosed by the following features.

1. The athlete often feels something giving way in the back of the leg or as if she has been hit from behind, just after forceful jump.
2. Pain and spasm occur rapidly so that she cannot put her foot on the ground.
3. Swelling and bruising develop distal to the injury site, reaching maximum after 48 hours.
4. There is local tenderness at the junction of upper and middle third of the calf.
5. There is pain at that point on passively stretching the muscle, worse when the knee is straight than when it is flexed.

First aid

1. Immobilize the leg to prevent further damage.
2. Apply a compression damage to the calf to limit the size of the swelling.
3. Give paracetamol for pain.
4. Send him to a hospital afterwards.

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