Allopathy is an orthodox or conventional system of treatment which is dependent upon the subjective and objective symptoms, and symptom is an indication of a disorder or disease noticed by the patient himself. A presenting symptom is that which compels a patient to consult a doctor. The doctor notices some ‘signs’ and then questions the patient about duration of appearance of the disease, treatment taken (so far), his profession, life style, eating habits, addiction, time of aggravation and mollification and also which medicine was taken earlier (if at all) that had reacted on him (the patient).
Generally there is hardly any need to go in for clinical tests but, if the physician feels he may order some clinical tests and, after seeing the clinical findings, starts the treatment.
Clinical tests, x-ray. ultrasound tests, generally reveal the present condition of a disorder but, in more complicated cases, as in the case of heart, kidney, brain, skin etc., some more sophisticated tests may have to be done so as to arrive at definitive conclusion. Normally a general physican is able to discern the factors leading to a disorder but, in the case of more complicated and complex cases, the patient may have to be referred to a relevant specialistd. In certain cases a surgical interference may be necessary and, if it is so, the case is referred to a specialist surgeon.
Diseases of pregnancy are treated by gynaecologist, of infants by paedriaticians, of heart by a Cardiologists, of urine by urologists, bone related problems by orthopaedic surgeons, digestion related problems by gastro enterologist. In addition, Ear-Nose and throat problems by ENT specialist, eye diseases by opthalmologists, Nervous diseases by Neurologists so an and so forth.
Since there are host of specialists in each field, role of general physicians is, now, on a way to general decline. Where surgery is involved, a physician has no role to play and vice versa this is a pity that where a case could have been easily treated and managed by simple medicines, operations are performed indiscriminatively. In fact, an operation ought to be the last resort and undertaken only when all the viable options have exhausted. But, in emergent cases, say in case of accidents, renal failure, im-mediate heart problems of grave intensity, brain damage/tumor etc, there ought to be no delay in performing an operation, especially when patient’s life is in peril. All said and done proper diagnosis should form the basis for any treatment.
Such medicines can be divided into following groups, that is medicines pertaining to :
1. Cardiovascular system
2. Musculo skeletal disorders
3. Central nervous system.
4. Alimentary disorders
5. Genito-urinary tract
6. Respiratory system
7. Allergic disorders
8. Skin related disoders
9. Oropharyngeal disorders
10. Hormonal imbalances
11. Nutritional supplements
13 Surgical apparatus and vaccines 14. Eye-related disorders Modes of drug administration
A patient can be administered medicines by means of following methods.
(a) Mouth (oral medicines)
(b) Injections (intranuscular/intravenous)
(c) Glucose/saline drips (in which medicnes are injected int h e I.V fluid)
(d) Local applications (as in the case of skin and joint problems)
(e) Spray or inhalation
(f) Local anaesthesia
Forms of formulated medicines:-
These are available in the form of:
1. Tabelets. Capsules. Pills
2. Liquids, syrups. Mixtures
4. Liniments, rubeficients, Emollients.
7. Ointments and lotions
8. Inhalers, sprays, Relaxants etc.
A patient who is averse to taking either tablets or pills or even liquids shouldn’t be forced to do anything againts his will and inclination. It is for the doctor to see that the medicine, prescribed by him, doesn’t cause any revulsion and /or resistance by the patient; Generally film coated tablets and liquid preparations having palatable base are not resisted by the parent but, in a few patients, reations may occur. One has to be extra careful in the case of infants, the elderly, weak and emaciated pregnant ladies.