First-Aid: How to Give First-Aid for Muscles Injuries and Head Injuries


Muscles are of two types, voluntary and involuntary. Injuries occur to the voluntary or skeletal muscles. These may be due to overstretching, or tearing due to violent or sudden movements. Muscle injuries are of the following types.

Muscle Injuries

Type – Features

Strain – There is a partial tearing of the muscle, often at the junction of the muscle and its tendon.

Rupture – There is a complete tearing of the muscle in its fleshy part or tendon.

Deep bruising – It occurs when there is severe injury to a large bulk of the muscle.

The condition is diagnosed by the following features.

1. There is severe and sharp pain over the site of injury to the muscle.
2. The victim is unable to move the part. On making an attempt at moving it, there is sharp pain locally.
3. The muscle may be swollen and stiff.

First aid

1. Give rest to the injured part.
2. Apply an ice pack locally to reduce swelling and pain.
3. Apply an elastic crepe bandage over the affected part.
4. Elevate the injured part.
5. Give paracetamol for pain.
6. Send him to hospital whenever it is possible to do so.


Head injuries are always grave injuries because they can be associated with serious injury to the brain within the skull. These may be accompanied by skull fractures. They may be caused by road accidents, mining accidents, sports accidents, fall from a height etc. Various manifestations of head injuries are as follows.

1. Scalp wounds.

2. Skull fractures.

3. Concussion : there is a temporary disturbance of the function of the brain. The victim becomes unconscious. However he recovers fully after some time. He may not remember nothing of the previous happenings.

4. Intracranial hemorrhage : it may be due to tear of the meninges producing extradural hematoma, subdural hematoma, subarachnoid hemorrhage, or intra-cerebroventricular hemorrhage. External pressure on the brain damages it. The increase in the intracranial tension may make the victim unconscious. If the brainstem gets pushed down the vertebral canal, the vital centers may get damaged and produce cardiorespiratory arrest and death.

The condition is diagnosed by the following features

1. The victim may be unconscious.
2. The pupils may be dilated, not responding to light, or of unequal size.
3. Respiration may be labored or noisy.
4. Pulse may be slow and bounding.
5. Neurological signs may be present, e.g. paralysis of one side of the body.

First aid

1. Place the victim in recovery position.
2. Monitor his vital parameters every 10 minutes.
3. Do not give him anything orally.
4. Shift him to a hospital immediately.

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