Carcinoma: Any cancer that arises in epithelium, the tissue that lines the skin and internal organs of the body.
Sarcoma: Any cancer of connective tissue. These tumours may occur in any part of the body, as they arise in the tissues that make up an organ rather than being restricted to a particular organ. They can arise in fibrous tissue, muscle, fat, bone, cartilage, blood and lymphatic vessels, etc.
Leukaemia: It is a cancer of the blood in which the bone marrow and other blood forming organs over-produce immature or abnormal white cells.
Lymphoma: Any malignant tumour of lymph nodes or lymph gland.
Signs and Symptoms of Cancer
Cancers of various types and at various sites manifest themselves in a variety of ways.
On external surfaces, any thickening of the tissues, formation of a nodule or tumour, persisting sores and ulcers, can be a feature of cancer.
Internal cancers may grow for some time before they cause any symptom. But weight loss, anaemia and low-grade fever in older people even without any other symptom, should arouse suspicion.
Any of the following manifestations may be cancer:
1. A lump or hard area in the breast.
2. A change in a wart or mole.
3. A persistent change in digestive and bowel habits, for example, constipation.
4. A persistent cough or hoarseness in a smoker.
5. Bleeding per vagina at times other than the menstrual.
6. Non-injury bleeding from the surface of the skin, mouth of any other bodily orifice.
7. Any ulcer that does not get well.
8. Unexplained loss of weight.
9. Unexplained diminished or lost appetite.
10. Unexplained low-grade fever.