It signifies presence of albumine in the urine. Kidneys are such a perfect fitter that nothing, except waste and harmful products, can escape through urine. Albumin is a vital substance ofthe body. It is protein that is soluble in water and coagulated by heat (As an example ‘Serum Albumin’). It is found in blood plasma as its significance lies in maintenance of and the inability ofthe liver to synthesize albumin is a leading and prominent feature of cirrhosis – a chronic liver disease.
This situation arises when there is painful or difficult urination which is generally associated with frequency and urgency of urine, when urinary flow may be interrupted, may be partial or even scanty – especially when cystitis or urethritis be the cause.
Pyelitis indicates inflammation of the pelvis (which is the part of the kidney from which urine drains into the ureter). The condition is often caused by some bacterial infection which may surface in any shape or form causing obstruction to the process of free flow of urine.
All these terms are interrelated. Whenever there is pain in the kidney, it is usually attributed to presence of some sort of infection or of presence of stone in the kidney. Pain is only one of the leading symptoms of kidney infections. Nephralgia is the pain felt at the moment when a stone is about to leave the kidney.
Nephritis (Bright’s Disease) (Acute And Chronic Stages)
‘Nephritis’ means inflammation of the kidney which con¬dition is actuated by many causes and is one ofthe most serious of renal disorders. Moreover, it is a non-specific term which points to variety of causes. The onset, development and termination are quite variable and differ from person to person, depending on the status of the disease.
The term refers to spasmodic pain that begins from the kidneys and ends up or travels towards thighs, testicles or genitals.
Now-a-days 8 out of 10 persons suffer clue to stones in kidneys for which our eating habits and adulterated food, faulty living style, are the main causes. But, people living in certain areas have certain ingredients, present in foods, water and other eatables which precipitate stone formation. In our country certain areas in Punjab, Haryana, LLP., Delhi, U.P. and M.P. are called ‘stone belts’ where incidence of stones is quite common whereas in eastern and southern parts, this malady is not so common.
The condition can be defined as an abnormal mobility of the kidney which renders the entire organ palpable and any experienced doctor can locate the same during physical examination, or else x-ray of the affected side will remove all the doubts. Women are affected far more than men.
1. It is generally not congenital.
2. Physical labour.
3. Marked emaciation.
4. Lifting heavy articles, stooping frequently.
5. Girdling and tight lacing, putting on fit and tight dress.
6. Traction used for hernias.
7. Pressure due to abnormally large liver.
8. General emaciation of sustaining ligament of pelvis and abdomen.
9. Persons who eat sparingly and whose diet is deficient in fats, proteins, vitamins etc.
– Heaviness or dragging in lower abdomen, which is aggravated by standing or walking for a long time in one position.
– Sensations are referred to in relation the loins, pelvis or abdomen.
– Irritability of the urinary bladder. Obstinate constipation.
– Nephralgia, chiliness, rise in temperature.
These are only subjective symptoms but the objective symptoms can be obtained by Palpation. Though this disorder does not impact longevity, but total relief is generally not possible.
Though hardly any medicine is required but surgeons generally resort to ‘operate and anchor the wandering kidney’ syndrome by, of late, constant use of suitable abdominal binders and pads, has met with utmost success in most of the cases, as suitable corset,’if used, will relieve 90-95% problem of the movable kidney.
‘Nephropexy’ is an operation performed to fix a ‘floating’ or ‘movable’ kidney which is fixed to the 12th rib and adjacent posterior abdominal wall to prevent descent of the kidney on descending. Harrison explains the position like this, “Nephroptosis is an abnormal descent of a kidney into the pelvis on standing which may occur if it is excessively mobile (For example in thin women). If this is accompanied by pain and obstruction to free drainage of urine by kidney, nephropexy may be advised.”
Proper rest, use of suitable corsets, binders or pads can ensure near normalcy. Protein and fat enriched diet, extra Vitamins & Minerals, moderate activity that neither tires nor exerts pressure, gay and happy mood. In any case pressure on the stressed muscles, ligaments, nerves must be relieved. Operation should be thought of and opted for as a last resort because, if contributory causes still persist, despite an operation, recurrence of malady cannot be ruled. Thin and emaciated ladies should try to add extra weight, by rich diet and physical activity.
To relieve pain any of the analgesics, mentioned earlier, can be given. Remember, supportive measures are far more important than any other method.
Both ‘Irritable’ and ‘Neurotic’ terms are synonymous, without any significant variation. Neurosis of bladder is generally symptom of hysterical women.
The condition may surface due to inflammation of the wall of bladder or there could also be stricture of urethra, and Vas deference. Its role lies in secreting an alkaloid fluid that forms part of the semen. Enlargement of prostate is a common problem in old age when neck of the bladder gets obstructed, resulting in impaired/ hindered urination. As long as prostate gland does not get enlarged or inflammed, hardly any problem is faced in passing urine but, when the bladder dilates an increased pressure is transmitted, through the ureters, to the kidneys’ nephrons, it leads to impaired and damaged renal functioning.