There are four kinds: ghol (mixed), mathita (churned), shweta (white), udashvit and chacchika.
Ghol: This is prepared from curds without adding water and without taking out the fat. It is just emulslfed from the whole milk. Mathita: Here no water is added but the fat is taken out by churning and the butter milk is then prepared after such a churning. Shveta: Water is mixed in equal quantity and then curd is prepared. Udashvit Half the quantity of water alone is mixed here and churned.
Chacchika: Here water is added in a great quantity, and the fat is churned out. The term takra which means buttermilk is generally restricted to the buttermilk prepared by adding one fourth of water to the curds. This is the correct measure of preparing buttermilk. Chacchika where too much water is there is not at all nutritions, though this is how it is done among the poor. But this is still supposed to cool the eyes and keep them bright.
Ghol is destructive of the aggravation of vata and pitta, mathita is good for kapha. Takra is astringent and acidic and also sweet in taste and light for digestion; in post—assimiliation it Is sweet and its virility is hot. This is stimulative, astringent (contractive of tissues and hence healing), pleasant, promotive of virility and destructive of vata and bodily fatigue. Udashvit is curative of kapha but strengthening and best for removing fatigue. Chacchika is cooling, light and removes bile, fatigue and thrist. Buttermilk added with saindhav salt destroys vata troubles but causes kapha; it stimulates digestive power.
Takra or buttermilk is the best for feeble digestion, tastelessness and many other diseases. Therefore this is of the best kind. This takra however is of three kinds: one, where the butter is taken out fully, one where it is only taken out in half and the other where no butter is taken out. These three types snould be emt. oyed depending upon the vitiations of the dosha concerned in the disease, strength of the patient as well as his digestive capacity.
Stimulation of the digestive fire, actual digestivity and an astringency of action (whereby the living tissues are made to contract and thus help in healing) are the three important properties of a medicinal or a drug material). All of them are found in buttermilk (of the takra variety, which is what is mostly meant by “buttermilk”) and they do so in a special way. That is why it is very salutary. This buttermilk destroys the diseases of man, elephant and horse.
Buttermilk is particularly beneficial to persons suffering from a heaviness of stomach, tastelessness and feeble digestivity and those that have a lesion or who are trouble by phlegmatic complaints. For patients of piles due to vata and kapha there is no medicine in this world like buttermilk; they should be given dry or unctuous buttermilk depending upon their vitiation. And. the piles destroyed once by buttermilk will not recur.
For aggravation of vayu buttermilk mixed with saindhav salt is the best. For pitta, it is to be mixed with sugar (lassij. For kapha, add dry ginger, pepper and the smaller pipal. Buttermilk mixed with hing, cumin seeds and . saindhav salt is extremely beneficial for all gas troubles and vata aggravations. This destroys piles and dysentery, promotes taste in food, and offers strength and nourishment and takes away the shooting pains of the bladder. In cases of difficult urination (mutra kricchra) buttermilk is to be taken mixed with jaggery. For jaundice, add the powder of the roots of chitrak (plumbago).